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All About Vaginismus
• Description of Vaginismus
• The Causes of Vaginismus
• Types of Vaginismus
• Diagnosis of Vaginismus
• Vaginismus Smptoms
• Painful sex
• Vulvar Vestibulit Syndrome

Vaginismus Treatment
• Vaginismus Treatment
• Hypnotherapy (Hypnosis Treatment)
• Treatment in Hera Clinic
• Not Suggested Methods

Different Topics
• Vaginismus and Pregnancy
• Vaginismus in Single Girl
• Male Spouse Problems
• Misconceptions
• Vaginismus in History
SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS


In this section, you may find scientific articles, books and publications that we benefitted from in constructing our website.

Click for the scientific studies that we conducted about vaginismus treatments at our clinic  >>

Other other web sites about vaginismus:

www.vajinismusmerkezi.com  (in Turkish)
www.jinekolognet.com/vajinismus.asp   (in Turkish)
www.eserdag.com/vajinusmus.htm     (in Turkish) 
www.vajinismus.us  (in Turkish)

Books and publications about vaginismus:

1) Abraham AM (1977) Treatment of vaginismus. N Z Med J 86:445.

2) Abraham HC (1956) Therapeutic and psychological approach to cases of unconsummated marriage. Br Med J 1:837-839.

3) Abramov L, Wolman I, Higgins MP (1994) Vaginismus: An important factor in the evaluation and management of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. Gynecol Obstet Invest 38:194-197.

4) Adam E, Şar V, Tükel R, Üçok A ve ark: Psikiyatri Ders Notu.İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayınları No: 4139,2001

5) American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (1995) ACOG technical bulletin: Sexual dysfunction. Int Gynecol Obstet 51:265-277.

6) American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed).Washington, DC.

7) American Psychiatric Association(1995) Training in and dissemination of empirically-validatedpsychological treatments: Report and recommendations. Clin Psychol 48:3-24.

8) Amerikan Psikiyatri Birliği: Mental Bozuklukların Tanısal ve Sayımsal El Kitabı.4.Baskı. Köroğlu E, çev.editörü. Ankara: Hekimler Yayın Birliği,1995.

9) Annotated Comparative Listing of DSM-II and DSM-III (Appendix C ), In: DSM-III: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Edition. Washigton: American Psychiatric Association, 1980.

10) Araoz DL (1982) Hypnosis and sex therapy. New York: Brunner/ Mazel,Inc.

11) Arentewicz G. Schmidt G (1983): The treatment of sexual disorders: Concepts and techniques of couple therapy. New York: Basics Books Inc.

12) Audibert C, Kahn-Nathan J (1980) Le vaginisme. Contracept Sex Fertil 8:257-263.

13) Bancroft J : Human sexuality and its problems. Churchill Livingstone. Edinburgh. 1980.

14) Bancroft, J. (1989) Human Sexuality and Its Problems (Edinburg, Churchill Livingstone ).

15) Barlow DH (1988) Anxiety disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: Guilford Press.

16) Barnes J (1986) Primary vaginismus (part 1) : Social and clinical features. (part 2): Aetiological features Ir Med J 79:59-65.

17) Barnes J, Bowman EP, Cullen J (1984) Biofeedback as an adjunt to psychotherapy in the treatment of vaginismus. Biofeedback Self Regul 9:281-289.

18) Barsky AJ, Goodson JD, Lane RS et al. The amplification of somatic symptoms. Psychosom Med 1998; 50:510-519.

19) Barsky AJ, Wyshak G, Klerman GL. The Somatosensory Amplification Scale and its relationship to hypochondriasis.J Psychiatry Res 1990;24:323-334.

20) Barsky AJ. Amplification, somatization, and the somatoform disorders. Psychosomatics 1992;3:28-34.

21) Bason R, Riley AJ (1994) Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: A common condition wich may present as vaginismus. Sex Mar Ther 9:221-224.

22) Basson R (1996) Lifelong vaginismus: A clinical study of 60 consecutive cases. J Soc Gynecol Obstet Can 3:551-561.

23) Beck JG (1993) Vaginismus. In W O’Donohue, JH Greer (Eds), Handbook of sexual dysfunctions: Assessment and treatment (pp 381-397). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc.

24) Becker J.Segraves RT: Sexual Disorders Foreward. Oldham Mj,Riba BM ( ed): Review of Psychiatry, American Psychiatric Press, Washington DC. 14 : 637-638, 1995

25) Bergeron S, Binik YM,Khalife S, Pagidas K (1997) Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: A critical review. Clin J Pain 13:27-42.

26) Berman JR, Goldstein I: Female sexual dysfunction. Urol Clin North Am 28: 405-16,2001

27) Binik YM, Reissing E, Pukall C, Flory N, Payne KA, Khalife S.(2002) The female sexual pain disorders: genital pain or sexualdysfunction? 31:5 (p:425-9)

28) Biswas A, Ratnam SS (1995) Vaginismus and outcome of treatment. Ann Acad Med 24:755-758.

29) Blazer JA (1964) Married virgins: A study of unconsummated marriage. J Marriege Fam 26:213-214.

30) Brin MF, Vapnek JM (1997) Treatment of vaginismus with botulinum toxin injections.Lancet 349:252-252.

31) Buytendijk FJJ. Algemene theorie der menselijke houding en beweging.(General theory of human posture and movement) Utrecht: Spectrum,1957

32) Carey PM, Gordon MC: Sexual Dysfunction Among Heterosexual Adults. Diamant L, Meanulty DR (ed): The Psychology of Sexual Orientation. Behavior, and Identity. Greenvood Pres, London. 1995.

33) Chisholm ID (1972) Sexual problems in marriage: Non-consummation. Postgrad Med J 48: 544-547.

34) Clement U, Schmidt G (1983) Long-term rresults and limitations of outcome. In: G Arentewicz, G Schmidt (Eds), The treatment of sexual disorders: Concepts and techniques of couple therapy (pp123-146).New York: Basic Boks Inc.

35) Cloninger, CR, Przybeck TR, Svrakic DM& Wetzel RD. Temperament and Character Inventory(TCI): A Guide to Its Development and Use,1994.

36) Cooke G: The efficacy of two desensitization procedures: an anlogue study. Journal of Behaviour Research and Therapy 4: 17-24, 1966.

37) Cooper,A.J.(1969) An innovation in the “ behaviriol” treatment of a case of non-comsummotion due to vaginismus. Br J Psychiatry 115:721-722.

38) Crenshaw TL, Goldberg JP, editors. Drugs that effect sexual functioning. London: Sexual pharmacology, 1996 ( Norton).

39) Crenshaw TL, Kessler J (1985) Vaginismus. Med Aspects Hum Sex 19:21-32.

40)Dawkins S, Taylor R (1961) Non-consummation of marriage: A survey of seventy cases. Lancet 2:1029-1033.

41)DeMoor W (1972) Vaginismus: Etiology and treatment. Am J Psychother 26:207-215.

42) Derogatıs, L.R. (1977). SCL-90: Administration, Scoring and Procedure Manual-I for the Revised Version. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins Univ., School of Medicine, Clinical Psychometrics Unit.

43) Derogatis L.R., Meyer J., King K.: Psychopathology in Individuals with Sexual Dysfunction. American Journal of Psychiatry,1981; 138(6): 757-763.

44) Derogatis, L. R.,& Melisaratos, N.(1979) The DSFI: A multidimensional measure of sexual functioning. Sexual and Marital Therapy, 5,244-281.

45) Diamond M : Biological aspects of Sexual Orientation and Identy. Diamant L and Mc Anulty RD(eds). The Psychology of Sexual Orienation. Behaviour and Identy. London, Greenwood Pres P:45-80,1995.

46) Drenth JJ (1988) Vaginismus and the desire for a child. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 9:125-137.

47) Drenth JJ, Andriessen S, Heringa MP, Mouriys MJE, van de Wiel HBM, Weijmar Schultz WCM (1996) Connections between primary vaginismus and procreation: Some observations from the clinical practice. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 9:195-201.

48) Droegemuller W (1994) Sexuality and sexual dysfunction. In H Visscher (Ed), Precis IV: An update in obstetrics and gynecology (pp97-103). Washington, DC: ACOG.

49) DSM-III R: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Edition. –Revised. Washigton: American Psychiatric Association, 1987.

50) DSM-III: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Third Edition. Washigton: American Psychiatric Association, 1980.

51) Duddle M (1977) Etiological factors in the unconsummated marriage. J Psychosom Res 21:157-160.

52) Dupree Jones K, Lehr ST, Hewell SW (1997) Dyspareunia: Three case reports. J Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 26:19-23.

53) Dünya Sağlık Örgütü. Ruhsal ve Davranışsal Bozuklukların Sınıflandırılması. Çev. Ed. Öztürk Ö, Ufuk B. Ankara: Türkiye Sinir ve Ruh Sağlığı Hastalıkları Derneği Yayını, 1993.

54) Eliot ML: The Use of “ Impotances “ and “Frigidity”, Why Has “importance” survived?. Journal of Sex Marital Therapy 11:51-56, 1985.

55) Ellison C (1968) Psychosomatic factors in the unconsummated marriage. J Psychosom Res 12:61-65.

56) Ellison C (1972) Vaginismus. Med Aspects Hum Sex 6:34-54.

57) Eriştiren P: Cinsel İşlev Bozukluğu Tanısı Konarak Terapiye Alınan Kadın Olgularla, Evlilik İçi Çatışma Nedeniyle Terapiye Alınan Kadın Olguların, Psikiyatrik Komorbititeye ve Evlilik İlişkilerinin Değerlendirilmesi.Uzmanlık Tezi. Bakırköy Ruh ve Sinir Hastalıkları Hastanesi 1.psikiyatri Birimi. İstanbul, 1999.

58) Faure JL, Siredey A (1923) Traite de gynecologie medico-chirurgicale (3rd ed).Paris: Octave Doin.

59) Fenichel L (1945) The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. New York: Norton.

60) Fertel NS (1977) Vaginismus: Areview. J Sex Mar Ther 3:113-121.

61) Finkelhor D: Sex among siblings: a survey on prevalence, variety and effects. Arch of Sex Beh. 9:171-94,1980.

62) Fisher S : The female orgazm: Psychology, physiology, fantasy, London, Allen Lane, 1973.

63) Fisher S: The female orgasm. Basic Boks, New York. 1973.

64) Fordney DS (1978) Dyspareunia and vaginismus. Clin Obstet Gynecol 21:205-221.

65) Frank E, Anderson C, Kupfer DJ: Profiles of couples seeking sex therapy and marital therapy. American J.Psych. 133: 559-562. 1976.

66) Frank E, Anderson C, Rubenstein M: Frequency of sexual dysfunction in “normal” couples. J of Med. 299:111-115,1978.

67) Freud S: Three Essay on the Theory of Sexuality. London: Imago Pres, 1949.

68) Frick- Bruder V (1979) Vaginismus. Z Allg Med 55:1330-1331.

69) Friedman IJ (1962) Virgin wives. London: Tavistock.

70) Fritz GS, Stoll K, Wagner N: A comparison of males and females who were sexually molested as children. J. Of Sex and Marital Therapy. 7:54-9,1981.

71) Gaafar A (1962) Vaginismus: A simple effective Office procedure for its treatment. Alex Med J 8:566-571.

72) Gamsa A (1994) The role of psychological factors in chronic pain: A critical appraisal. Pain 57:17-29.

73) Ghavami-Dicker S (1988) Apercus d’une recherche en cours sur le vaginisme.Rev Med Suisse Romande 108:307-312.

74) Graber EA, Barber HK, O’Rourke JJ(1969) Newlywed apareunia. Obbstet Gynecol 33:418-421.

75) Grafeille N (1986) Profil comportemental des partenaires des femmes vaginiques. Psychol Med 18:411-414.

76) Guyton AC: The Reproductive System and The Male Hormones. İn Gusyon AC, ed. Anatomy and Physiolgy. CBC College Publishing 773-782, 1985.

77) Gürbüz A.,Yetkin N., Vajinismus,Konversiyon Bozukluğu tanısı konan ve evlilik sorunlarıyla başvuran üç grup kadında Aleksitimi ve Somatizasyon ilişkisi. 3 P Dergisi 2000;8 (Özel sayı.1) s:22-29

78) Halam R.S., Hafner R.J.(1978): Fears of Phobic Patients: Factor Analyses of Self-Report Data. Behaviour Research and Therapy, Vol.16,1-6.

79) Hall SP (1952) Vaginismus as a cause of dyspareunia: A report of cases and a method of treatment. West J Sur Obstet Gynecol 60:117-120.

80) Harrison CM (1996) Le vaginisme. Contracept Sex Fertil 24:223-228.

81) Hassel B (1997) Resolution of primary vaginismus and introital hyperesthesia by topical anesthesia. Anesth Analgy 85:1415-1416.

82) Hawton K : Sex Therapy: A Practical Guide. Oxford University Pres, London, 1985.

83) Hawton K, Catalan J (1990) Sex therapy for vaginismus: Characteristics of couples and treatment outcome. Sex Mar. Ther. 5:39-48.

84) Hawton K: Sexual Dysfunction. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychiatric Problems: A Practical Guide. K Hawton, PM Salkovskis, J Kirk, M Clark (Eds): Oxford: Oxford University Press, 370-405, 1989

85) Heiman JR, Meston CM (1997) Empirically validated treatment for sexual dysfunction. Annu Rev Sex Res 8:148-195.

86) İncesu C. Cinsel İşlevin Fizyolojisi. Cinsel işlev Bozuklukları Monograf Serisi, 1998, Sayı1, 3-12.

87) İncesu C., yetkin N. Assesment of 200 Subjects Referred to a Sexual Dysfunction Outpatient Clinic in Turkey. Proceedings of the XIIIth. World Congress of Sexology, 1997, 285-290.

88) İncesu C.,Yetkin N.,Cinsel işlev bozukluğu nedeniyle başvuran kadın ve erkek 561 olgunun sosyodemografik özellikleri ile cinsel tutum ve deneyimlerinin karşılaştırılması.3 P Dergisi 2000;8(Özel sayı,1)s14-21

89) Jansen PHP, Joosten EMG, Vingerhoets HM (1990) Muscle cramp: Main theories as to aetiology. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 239:337-342.

90) Kaplan DL,Steege JF (1983) The urethral syndrome: Sexual components. Sex Disabil 6:78-82.

91) Kaplan H. Comprehensive Evaluatuion of Disorders of Sexual Desire. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Pres,1985.

92) Kaplan HS : The anatomy and physiolgy of the sexual response. Kaplan HS. (ed). The new sex therapy. New York: Brunner/ Mazel, 27-56,1974.

93) Kaplan HS(1974):The New Sex Therapy: Active treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Brunner/Mazel . New York 413-429..

94) Kaplan HS, Fyer AJ, Novick A : The Treatment of Sexual phobias: The combined use of anti-panic medication and sex therapy. J. Sex therapy. J. Sex and Marital Therapy, 8: Spring, 1982.

95) Kaplan HS.The Sexual Desire Disorders:Dysfunctional Regulation of Sexual Motivation, Brunner/Mazel, New York,1995.

96) Kaplan HS: Disorders of Sexual Desire. New York: Brunner/ Mazel, 1979.

97) Kaplan HS: Hypoactive sexual desire. Journal of sex marital therapy 3, 1977.

98) Kaplan HS: Sexual Aversion,Sexual Phobias and Panic Disorder. Brunner/Mazel. New York.1987.

99) Kaplan HS: The anatomy and physiology of the sexual response. Kaplan HS. (ed). The new sex therapy. New York: Brunner/ Mazel, 27-56, 1974.

100) Kaplan HS: The Psychosexual Evaluation. Kaplan HS (ed). The Evaluation of Sexual Disorders. New York: Brunner/ Mazel Inc, 23-24, 1983.

101) Kaplan&Sadok. Klinik Psikiyatri. İkinci Baskı. Güneş kitabevi

102) Kayır A, Salman B, Arı D(1992) 100 vaginismus olgusunun TAT verileri. 7. Ulusal Psikoloji Kongresi, Ankara.

103) Kayır A, Sarımurat N, Yüksel Ş.(1989) Ortak cinsel sorunun (vajinismus) grup tedavi ve değerlendirmesi. 25. Ulusal Psikiyatri ve Nörolojik Bilimler Kongresi Bilimsel Çalışmaları, 327-331.

104) Kayır A. Kadın ve cinsel sorunları.(ed) Tekeli Ş. Kadın bakış açısından 80’ler Türkiye’sinde kadınlar. İletişim Yay. İstanbul 1.Baskı 1990,1993,1994(s 325-338).

105) Kayır A. Şahin D : Kadın cinselliği ve cinsel işlev bozuklukları. Ege Psikiyatri Sürekli Yayınları. Cilt 3, Sayı 1. İlkbahar 1998.

106) Kayır A. Yüksel Ş. Tükel MR : Vajinismus Nedenlerinin Tartışılması. IV. Psikoloji Kongresi, Özel Sayısı, 6(21):113-116,1987.

107) Kayır A., Geyran P., Tükel MR:, Kızıltuğ A(1990). Cinsel sorunlarda başvuru özellikleri ve tedavi seçimi.XXVI. Ulusal Psikiyatri ve Nörolojik Bilimler Kongresi, Bilimsel Yayınları, Cilt 2, s:451-458.

108) Kayır A., Tükel R., Yüksel Ş., (1986) Vaginismus ve Tedavisi. 22. Ulusal Psikiyatri ve Nörolojik Bilimler Kongresi Bilimsel Çalışmaları 29 Ekim-1 Kasım, Marmaris.

109) Kennedy P, Doherty N, Barnes J (1995) Primary vaginismus: A psychometric study of both partners. Sex Mar Ther 10: 9-22.

110) Kessler JM (1988) When the diagnosis is vaginismus: Fighting of misconceptions. Women Ther 7:175-186.

111) KilmannPR, Boland JP, Norton SP, Davidson E, Caid C (1986) Perspectives of sex therapy ouycome: A survey of AASECT providers. Sex Mar Ther 12:116-139.

112) Kinsey AC,Pomeroy WR, Martin CE: Sexual behavior in the human male. 1948.Am J Public Health 93: 894-8,2003

113) Kinsey AC. Gebhard Ph: Sexual Behaviour İn The Haman Female. Sounders, Philadelphia, 1953.

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118) Kulaksızoğlu B. I.,Kulaksızoğlu H. Cinsel işlev bozukluklarında hormonların etkisi. “ Sık görülen iki cinsel işlev bozukluğu: Vajinismus ve Erken Boşalmada Değerlendirme, Tanı ve Tedaviler. Ed: D. Şahin, A. Kayır. Roche Yayınları, İstanbul s: 24

119) Lamont JA (1978) Vaginismus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 131:632-636.

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121) Lauman EO, Gagnon JH, Michael RT, Michaels S(1994) The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: The University of Chicago Pres.

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124) Leiblum SR, Pervin LA, Campbell EG (1989) The treatment of vaginismus: Success and failure. In SR Leiblum, RC Rosen (Eds), Principles and practice of sex therapy (2 nd Ed, pp 113-138). New York: Guilford.

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148) O’Sullivan K, Barnes J (1978) Vaginismus: A report on 46 couples. J Ir Med Assoc 71:143-146.

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175) Stuntz RC (1986) Physical obstructions to coitus in women. Med Aspects Hum Sex 20:126-134.

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